Experiments with a Pelton Turbine HM 289

Experiments with a Pelton Turbine

Type: HM 289
Name: Experiments with a Pelton Turbine
Technical Description

  Pelton turbines are types of impulse turbine. They are driven by free jet nozzles. In the nozzles, the water is strongly accelerated. Ambient pressure exists at the nozzle outlet.  

  The experimental unit is placed upon the base unit HM 290. The two units together provide the basic experiments to get to know the operating behaviour and the most important characteristic variables of Pelton turbines.

  The water jet is accelerated in a nozzle and hits the Pelton wheel tangentially. In the blades on the circumference of the Pelton wheel the water jet is deflected by approximately 180°. The impulse of the water jet is transmitted to the Pelton wheel.

  HM 289 consists of a Pelton wheel and a needle nozzle, mounted in a transparent housing. The needle nozzle can be adjusted during operation. The loading device is outside of the housing. The eddy current brake generates a defined load. The eddy current brake is specially developed by GUNT. It is wear-free and can be finely adusted.

  The torque delivered by the turbine is determined via an electronic force sensor. The speed is measured with an optical speed sensor. The measuring values are transferred to the base unit HM 290.

  The water supply and the flow rate measurement are realised with the base unit HM 290. A pressure control included in HM 290 enables the

recording of characteristics at a constant head.

  All the advantages of software-supported experiments and evaluation are offered by the GUNT software in HM 290.  

  The well-structured instructional material sets out the fundamentals and provides a step-by-step guide through the experiments.


Learning Objectives / Experiments

- principle of operation of a Pelton turbine

- characteristic at constant head

  * relationship between torque and speed

  * efficiency dependent on speed

  * flow rate dependent on speed

  * hydraulic power and mechanical power dependent

    on speed

- evaluation of measuring values and characteristics

  based on the theory

- partial load behaviour with needle control in 

  comparison to throttle control


* Illustrative model of a Pelton turbine1
* Adjustable, wear-free eddy current brake as turbine


* GUNT software for data acquisition, visualisation

  and operation1

* Part of the GUNT-Labline fluid energy machines

Available accessories
HM 290 -- Base Unit for Turbines
Alternative products
HM 150.19 -- Operating Principle of a Pelton Turbine
HM 287 -- Experiments with an Axial Turbine
HM 288 -- Experiments with a Reaction Turbine
HM 291 -- Experiments with an Action Turbine
HM 365.31 -- Pelton and Francis Turbine
HM 450.01 -- Pelton Turbine
GUNT Labline

[1] turbine to place upon the base unit HM 290

[2] functioning and operating behaviour of a Pelton turbine

[3] transparent housing for observing the Pelton wheel and needle nozzle

[4] different nozzle cross-sections via adjustable nozzle needle

[5] constant pressure of the turbine represents in practice the head and is adjusted via HM 290

[6] turbine load using the wear-free and adjustable eddy current brake 

[7] force sensor to determine the torque on turbine shaft

[8] optical speed sensor for measuring the turbine speed

[9] water supply, flow rate measurement and unit-specific software data acquisition and operation via HM 290


Technical Data

Pelton turbine
- power output: approx. 70W at 2700min-1
- wheel diameter: 70mm
Measuring ranges

- torque: 0..0,5Nm
- speed: 0...9000min-1

Dimensions and Weight LxWxH: 350x250x300mm
Weight: approx. 5kg Scope of Delivery 1 experimental unit
1 set of instructional material Order Details

070.28900  HM 289  Experiments with a Pelton