Operating Principle of a Francis Turbine HM 150.20

Operating Principle of a Francis Turbine

Type: HM 150.20
Name: Operating Principle of a Francis Turbine
HM 150.20 - A product from the GUNT 2E range
Technical Description

  Water turbines are turbomachines utilising water power. The Francis turbine is a type of reaction turbine which converts the pressure energy of the water into kinetic energy in the distributor and in the rotor. The water is fed in the distributor by means of a spiral housing. The flowing water is accelerated in the distributor by the adjustable guide vanes and directed onto the blades. The redirection and further acceleration of the water in the rotor generates an impulse which is transmitted to the rotor.  

  HM 150.20 is the model of a Francis turbine demonstrating the function of a reaction turbine.

  The experimental unit consists of the rotor, the distributor with adjustable guide vanes, a band brake for loading the turbine and a housing with a transparent front panel. The transparent cover enables to observe the water flow, the rotor and the guide vanes during operation. The angle of attack and thus the power of the rotor are modified by adjusting the guide vanes.

 The turbine torque is determined by force measurement on a band brake and is read on spring balances. For measuring the rotational speed, a non-contact speed sensor, e.g. HM 082, is required. A manometer shows the water pressure at the turbine inlet.

  The experimental unit is positioned easily and securely on the work surface of the HM 150 base module. The water is supplied and the flow rate measured by HM 150. Alternatively, the experimental unit can be operated by the laboratory supply. 

  The well-structured instructional material sets out the fundamentals and provides a step-by-step guide through the experiments.


Learning Objectives / Experiments

- design and function of a Francis turbine
- determination of torque, power and efficiency
- graphical representation of characteristic curves for

  torque, power and efficiency


* Model of a reaction turbine1
* Transparent operating area1
* Turbine with adjustable guide vanes1
* Loading by band brake

Available accessories
HM 082 -- Speed Sensor
HM 150 -- Base Module for Experiments in Fluid Mechanics
Alternative products
HM 365.31 -- Pelton and Francis Turbine
HM 430C -- Francis Turbine Trainer
HM 450.02 -- Francis Turbine

[1] function of a Francis turbine
[2] transparent front panel for observing the operating area
[3] loading the turbine by use of the band brake
[4] adjustable guide vanes for setting different angles of attack
[5] marking on brake drum for non-contact speed measurement
[6] instruments: spring balances for determining the torque, manometer shows pressure at turbine inlet
[7] flow determination by base module HM 150
[8] water supply using the base module HM 150 or via lab supply


Technical Data

- output: 12W at n=1100min-1, approx. 40L/min,
- rotor, 7 blades
  blade width: 5mm
  external diameter: 50mm
- guide vanes: 6 vanes, adjustable (20 stages)


Measuring ranges
- braking force (spring balance): 10N
- pressure: 0...1,0bar


Dimensions and Weight LxWxH: 400x400x630mm
Weight: approx. 17kg Required for Operation HM 150 (closed water circuit) or water supply, drain Scope of Delivery 1 experimental unit
1 set of instructional material
Order Details

070.15020  HM 150.20  Operating Principle of

                                       a Francis Turbine