Operating Principle of a Pelton Turbine HM 150.19

Operating Principle of a Pelton Turbine

Type: HM 150.19
Name: Operating Principle of a Pelton Turbine
HM 150.19 - A product from the GUNT 2E range
Technical Description

  Water turbines are turbomachines utilising water power. The Pelton turbine is a type of impulse turbine; such turbines convert the pressure energy of water into kinetic energy entirely in the distributor. During the conversion, the water jet is accelerated in a nozzle and directed onto the blades of the Pelton wheel tangentially. The water jet is redirected by approximately 180° in the blades. The impulse of the water jet is transmitted to the Pelton wheel.
  HM 150.19 is a model of a Pelton turbine demonstrating the function of an impulse turbine.

  The experimental unit consists of the Pelton wheel, a needle nozzle used as distributor, a band brake for loading the turbine and a housing with a transparent front panel. The transparent cover enables to observe the water flow, the Pelton wheel and the nozzle during operation. The nozzle cross-section and thus the flow rate are modified by adjusting the nozzle needle. 

  The turbine torque is determined by force measurement on a band brake and is read on spring balances. For measuring the rotational speed, a non-contact speed sensor, e.g. HM 082, is required. A manometer shows the water pressure at the turbine inlet.

  The experimental unit is positioned easily and securely on the work surface of the HM 150 base module. The water is supplied and the flow rate measured by HM 150. Alternatively, the experimental unit can be operated by the laboratory supply. 

  The well-structured instructional material sets out the fundamentals and provides a step-by-step guide through the experiments.


Learning Objectives / Experiments

- design and function of a Pelton turbine
- determination of torque, power and efficiency
- graphical representation of characteristic curves for

  torque, power and efficiency


* Model of an impulse turbine1
* Transparent operating area1
* Adjustable nozzle cross-section1
* Loading by band brake

Available accessories
HM 082 -- Speed Sensor
HM 150 -- Base Module for Experiments in Fluid Mechanics
Alternative products
HM 289 -- Experiments with a Pelton Turbine
HM 365.31 -- Pelton and Francis Turbine
HM 450.01 -- Pelton Turbine

[1] function of a Pelton turbine
[2] transparent front panel for observing the operating area
[3] loading the turbine by use of the band brake
[4] adjustable nozzle needle for setting different nozzle cross-sections
[5] marking on brake drum for non-contact speed measurement
[6] instruments: spring balances for determining the torque, manometer shows pressure at turbine inlet
[7] flow rate determination by base module HM 150

[8] water supply using base module HM 150 or via laboratory supply

Technical Data

Pelton turbine
- output: 5W at 500min-1, approx. 30L/min, H=2m
- Pelton wheel
  14 blades 
  blade width: 33,5mm
  external diameter: 132mm
Needle nozzle
- jet diameter: 10mm


Measuring ranges
- braking force (spring balance): 10N
- pressure: 0...1bar


Dimensions and Weight LxWxH: 400x400x620mm
Weight: approx. 15kg Required for Operation HM 150 (closed water circuit) or water supply, drain Scope of Delivery 1 experimental unit
1 set of instructional material
Order Details

070.15019  HM 150.19  Operating Principle of

                                       a Pelton Turbine